There are a lot of resources available about algorithms, risk assessments, pretrial risk assessments, recidivism, and more! Here are some recommended readings, broken down by category:

Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence

Aki Younge, Deepra Yusuc, Elyse Voegeli, and Jon Truong: Automating NYC and (en)coding inequality?
Ali Ingersoll: How the Algorithms Running Your Life are Biased, The Washington Post (2019)
Aliya Ram: AI risks replicating tech’s ethnic minority bias across business, Financial Times (2018)
Andrew Lee Park: Injustice Ex Machina: Predictive Algorithms in Criminal Sentencing, UCLA Law Review (2019)
Andrew Van Dam: Algorithms were supposed to make Virginia judges fairer. What happened was far more complicated, The Washington Post (2019)
Cathy O’Neil: Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Crown: New York (2016)
Chelsea Barabas, Karthik Dinakar, Joichi Ito, Madars Virza, and Jonathan Zittrain: Interventions over Predictions: Reframing the Ethical Debate for Actuarial Risk Assessment, Proceedings of Machine Learning Research (2018)
Chris Palmer and Claudia Irizarry-Aponte: Dozens of speakers at hearing assail PA plan to use algorithm in sentencing, The Philadelphia Inquirer (2018)
Cynthia Dwork, Moritz Hardt, Toniann Pitassi, Omer Reingold, Rich Zemel: Fairness Through Awareness, Cornell University (2011)
Danielle Kehl, Priscilla Guo, and Samuel Kessler: Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System: Assessing the Use of Risk Assessments in Sentencing, Harvard Law School (2017)
David Scharfenberg: Computers can solve your problem. You may not like the answer. What happened when Boston Public Schools tried for equity with an algorithm, The Boston Globe (2018)
Douglas H. Fisher: Algorithms in Everyday Life, Vanderbilt University (2019)
Ed Pilkington: Digital Dystopia: how algorithms punish the poor. The Guardian (2019)
Ellora Tadaney Israni: When an Algorithm Helps Send You to Prison, The New York Times (2017)
EPIC: Algorithms in the Criminal Justice System: Pre-Trial Risk Assessment Tools
Geoffrey C. Barnes and Jordan M. Hyatt: Classifying Adult Probationers by Forecasting Future Offending, University of Pennsylvania (2012)
Jeffrey Dastin: Amazon scraps secret AI recruiting tool that showed bias against women, Reuters (2018)
Jennifer L. Skeem, Nicholas Scurich, and John Monahan: Impact of Risk Assessment on Judges’ Fairness in Sentencing Relatively Poor Defendants, Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2019-02 (2019)
Karen Hao: AI is sending people to jail–and getting it wrong, MIT Technology Review (2019)
Kelly Hannah-Moffat: The Uncertainties of Risk Assessment: Partiality, Transparency, and Just Decisions, University of Toronto (2015)
Megan T. Stevenson and Jennifer L. Doleac: Algorithmic Risk Assessment in the Hands of Humans, SSRN (2019)
Michael Feldman, Sorelle Friedler, John Moeller, Carlos Scheidegger, Suresh Venkatasubramanian: Certifying and removing disparate impact, Cornell University (2015)
Michael Li: Addressing the Biases Plaguing Algorithms, Harvard Business Review (2019)
Mimi Onuoha and Diana Nucera: A People’s Guide to AI, Allied Media Project
Nicole Nguyen: Netflix Wants to Change the Way You Chill, Buzzfeed News (2018)
Privacy SOS: What’s Predictive Policing, ACLU Massachusetts
Rashida Richardson, Jason M. Schultz, and Vincent M. Southerland: Litigating Algorithms 2019 US Report: New Challenges to Government Use of Algorithmic Decision Systems AI Now Institute (2019)
Rebecca Wexler: Life, Liberty, and Trade Secrets: Intellectual Property in the Criminal Justice System, Stanford Law Review (2017)
Richard Berk, Hoda Heidari, Shahin Jabbari, Michael Kearns, and Aaron Roth: Fairness in Criminal Justice Risk Assessments: The State of the Art. Sociological Methods & Research, University of Pennsylvania (2018)
Sandra G. Mayson: Bias In, Bias Out, Yale Law Journal (2018)
Sarah Fishel, Dan Flack, and David DeMatteo: Computer Risk Algorithms and Judicial Decision-Making, Drexel University (2018)
State v. Loomis: Wisconsin Supreme Court Requires Warning Before Use of Algorithmic Risk Assessments in Sentencing, Harvard Law Review (2016)
Tricia L Nadolny: How computers are predicting crime and potentially impacting your future, The Philadelphia Inquirer (2017)
Vincent Southerland: With AI and Criminal Justice, The Devil is in the Data, ACLU (2018)
Vyacheslav Polonski: AI is convicting criminals and determining jail time, but is it fair? World Economic Forum (2018)

Pretrial Risk Assessment Basics

Ameshia Cross: Bail Reform National Landscape, Pretrial Justice Institute (2019)
Brandon Buskey and Andrea Woods: Making Sense of Pretrial Risk Assessments, The Champion (2018)
Charles Summers and Tim Willis: Pretrial Risk Assessment: Research Summary, Bureau of Justice Assistance (2010)
Jodi L. Viljoen, Melissa R. Jonnson, Dana M. Cochrane, Lee M. Vargen, and Gina M. Vincent: Impact of Risk Assessment Instruments on Rates of Pretrial Detention, Postconviction Placements, and Release: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Law and Human Behavior (2019)
Jon Schuppe: Post Bail: America’s justice system runs on the exchange of money for freedom. Some say that’s unfair. But can data fix it?, NBC News (2017)
Heather M. Harris, Justin Goss, and Alexandria Gumbs: Pretrial Risk Assessment in California, Technical Appendices, Public Policy Institute of California (2019)
Matt Henry: Risk Assessment: Explained, The Appeal (2019)
Ohio Criminal Sentencing Commission: Comprehensive lists of major tools, OCSC Pretrial Risk Assessment Tool Compendium (2017)
Pamela M Casey, Jennifer K Elek, Roger K Warren, Fred Cheesman, Matt Kleiman, and Brian Ostrom: Offender Risk & Needs Assessment Instruments: A Primer for Courts, National Center for State Courts (2014)
Phillip Knoxx and Peter Keifer: The Risks and Rewards of Risk Assessments, National Center for State Courts (2017)
Sarah L Desmarais and Evan M Lowder: Pretrial Risk Assessment Tools: A Primer for Judges, Prosecutors, and Defense Attorneys, MacArthur Foundation Safety and Justice Challenge (2019)
Sarah L Desmarais and Jay P Singh: Risk Assessment Instruments Validated and Implemented in Correctional Settings in the United States, Council of State Governments Justice Center (2013)
Stanford Law School Policy Lab: Stanford Pretrial Risk Assessment Tools Factsheet Project

Anti-Pretrial Risk Assessment

ACLU Kansas: Challenging Pre-Trial Risk Assessment Tools (2019)
Alicia Solow-Niederman, YooJung Choi, and Guy Van den Broeck: The Institutional Life of Algorithmic Risk Assessment, Berkeley Technology Law Journal (2019)
Andy Philipson: Pretrial Reform Must Go Beyond Ending Cash Bail, The Appeal (2020)
Angela Henderson: The Real Risk, MediaJustice News Blog (2020)
Angèle Christin: Algorithms in practice: Comparing web journalism and criminal justice, Big Data & Society (2017)
Ben Green: “Fair” Risk Assessments: A Precarious Approach for Criminal Justice Reform, Harvard University (2018)
Bernard E Harcourt: Risk as a Proxy for Race, University of Chicago Law School (2010)
Cait Gibbons: Algorithms gone awry: The impact of inappropriate data use, The Badger Herald (2019)
Catherine Matacic: In the United States, computers help decide who goes to jail. But their judgement may be no better than ours, Science (2018)
Cathy O’Neil: Big Data Alone Can’t Fix a Broken Bail System, Bloomberg (2018)
Chelsea Barabas, Karthik Dinakar, and Colin Doyle: The Problem with Risk Assessment Tools, The New York Times (2019)
Colin Doyle: Chesa Boudin’s new Bail Policy is nation’s most progressive. It also reveals persistence of tough-on-crime norms, The Appeal (2020)
David G. Robinson and Logan Koepke: Civil Rights and Pretrial Risk Assessments, Upturn Inc. (2019)
David G. Robinson, Hannah Jane Sassaman, and Megan Stevenson: Pretrial Risk Assessments: A Practical Guide for Judges, Judges’ Journal (2018)
Elizabeth Glazer, Hannah Sassaman, Jon Wool: Debating Risk-Assessment Tools, The Marshall Project (2017)
Ethan Corey: How a Tool to Help Judges May Be Leading Them Astray, The Appeal (2019)
Ethan Corey: New Data Suggests Risk Assessment Tools Have Little Impact on Pretrial Incarceration, The Appeal (2020)
Hannah Sassaman: Artificial Intelligence is Racist yet computer algorithms are deciding who goes to prison, Newsweek (2018)
Hayley Tsukayama and Jamie Williams: If A Pre-Trial Risk Assessment Tool Does Not Satisfy These Criteria, It Needs to Stay Out of the Courtroom, Electronic Frontier Foundation (2018)
Human Rights Watch: Q & A: Profile Based Risk Assessment for US Pretrial Incarceration, Release Decisions (2018)
Human Rights Watch: “Not in it for Justice”: How California’s Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People, (2017)
John Logan Koepke and David G. Robinson: Danger Ahead: Risk Assessment and the Future of Bail Reform, Washington Law Review (2017)
Julia Angwin, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu, and Lauren Kirchner: Machine Bias: There’s software used across the country to predict future criminals. And it’s biased against blacks, ProPublica (2016)
Julia Angwin and Jeff Larson: Bias in Criminal Risk Scores is Mathematically Inevitable, Researchers Say, ProPublica (2016)
Julia Dressel and Hany Farid: The accuracy, fairness, and limits of predicting recidivism, Science Advances (2018)
JusticeLA: JusticeLA Issues Letter to L.A. County Board of Supervisors As Future of Bail Reform Hangs in the Balance with SB 10 (2018)
Karen Hao and Jonathan Stray: Can you make AI fairer than a judge? Play our courtroom algorithm game, MIT Technology Review (2019)
Kay Whitlock and Nancy A. Heitzeg: Billionaire-Funded Criminal Justice Reform Actually Expands Carceral System, Truthout (2019)
Kristian Lum and Tarak Shah: Measures of Fairness for New York City’s Supervised Release Risk Assessment Tool, Human Rights Data Analysis Group (2019)
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights: The Use of Pretrial “Risk Assessment” Instruments: A Shared Statement of Civil Rights Concerns
Madeleine Carlisle: The Bail-Reform Tool That Activists Want Abolished, The Atlantic (2018)
Megan Stevenson: Assessing Risk Assessment in Action, George Mason University (2017)
Partnership on AI: Report on Algorithmic Risk Assessment Tools in the US Criminal Justice System
Pretrial Justice Institute: Updated Position on Pretrial Risk Assessment Tools (February 2020)
Pretrial Justice Institute: The Case Against Pretrial Risk Assessment Instruments (November 2020)
Rachel Alexander and Chad Sokol: A Year After New Effort to Decrease Spokane County Jail Population, More Inmates Were Behind Bars, The Spokesman-Review (2018)
RJ Vogt: Coin Toss: Are Risk-Measuring Tools Accurate Enough? Law 360 (2020)
Sandra G Mayson: Dangerous Defendants, Yale Law Journal (2016)
Six Things to Know About Algorithm-Based Decision-Making Tools, Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights
Scott Shackford: Bail Reform efforts are backfiring in Baltimore, leading to more people stuck in jail, Reason: Free Minds and Free Markets (2018)
Stacey Feindt: Detained by Data: A Critical Analysis of the Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument, University of Mary Washington (2019)
The Coalition to End Money Bond: Monitoring Cook County’s Central Bond Court: A Community Courtwatching Initiative (2018)
Tom Simonite: Algorithms Should’ve Made Courts More Fair. What Went Wrong? Wired (2019)
Vincent Southerland and Andrea Woods: What Does Fairness Look Like? Conversations on Race, Risk Assessment Tools, and Pretrial Justice, Center on Race, Inequality, and the Law (2018)

Pro-Pretrial Risk Assessment

Anne Milgram: Why smart statistics are the key to fighting crime, TED Talk (2013)
Cara Thompson: Myths and Facts-Using Risk and Needs Assessments to Enhance Outcomes and Reduce Disparities in the Criminal Justice System, National Institute of Corrections and Community Corrections Collaborative Network (2017)
Cindy Redcross, Brit Henderson, Luke Miratrix, and Erin Valentine: Evaluation of Pretrial Justice System Reforms that use the Public Safety Assessment: Effects in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, MDRC Center for Criminal Justice Research (2019)
Jon Kleinberg, Himabindu Lakkaraju, Jure Leskovec, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan: Human Decisions and Machine Predictions, The National Bureau of Economic Research (2017)
Kamala Harris and Rand Paul: Harris, Paul Introduce Bill to Encourage States to Reform or Replace Unjust, Costly Money Bail System (Press Release) (2017)
Lisa Pilnik and editors Barbara Hankey, Elizabeth Simoni, Spurgeon Kennedy, Leland J. Moore, and Jim Sawyer: A Framework for Pretrial Justice: Essential Elements of an Effective Pretrial System and Agency, National Institute of Corrections (2017)
Pretrial Justice Institute: Pretrial Risk Assessment: Science Provides Guidance on Assessing Defendants (2015)
Sarah Picard, Matt Watkins, Michael Rempel, and Ashmini G Kerodal: Beyond the Algorithm: Pretrial Reform, Risk Assessment, and Racial Fairness,
William Dieterich, Christina Mendoza, and Tim Brennan: COMPAS Risk Scaes: Demonstrating Accuracy Equity and Predictive Parity, Northpointe Inc Research Department (2016)

Pretrial Detention, Bail, Race, and the Criminal Legal System

ACLU: Bail Reform
Alice Speri: Police make more than 10 million arrests a year, but that doesn’t mean they’re solving crimes, The Intercept (2019)
Ashley Nellis: Still Life: America’s Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences, The Sentencing Project (2017)
Ava Kofman: Digital Jail: How Electronic Monitoring Drives Defendants into Debt, ProPublica (2019)
Becca Costello: Nebraska Lawmakers Consider Release Programs In Debate Over Cash Bail Reform, NET Nebraska (2019)
Beth E Richie and Andrea J Ritchie: The Crisis of Criminalization: A call for a comprehensive philanthropic response, The Barnard Center for Research on Women (2017)
Besiki Kutateladze, Vanessa Lynn, and Edward Liang: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter in Prosecution? A Review of Empirical Studies, Vera Institute of Justice (2012)
Brice Cooke, Binta Zahra Diop, Alissa Fishbane, Jonathan Hayes, Aurelie Ouss, and Anuj Shah: Using Behavioral Science to Improve Criminal Justice Outcomes: Preventing Failures to Appear in Court, ideas42 and University of Chicago Crime Lab (2018)
Bryce Covert: Are Harris County Officials Trying To ‘Sabotage’ Bail Reform with Misleading Data? The Appeal (2017)
Caitlin Hill: Rethinking the Concept of “Failure to Appear”, ACLU Ohio (2017)
Carlos Berdejó: Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities in Plea Bargaining, Boston College Law Review and Loyola Law School, Los Angeles Legal Studies Research Paper (2017)
Critical Resistance and Community Justice Exchange: On the Road to Freedom: An Abolitionist Assessment of Pretrial and Bail Reforms (June 2021)
Data for Progress: The End Money Bail Act
David Arnold, Will Dobbie, Crystal S Yang: Racial Bias in Bail Decisions, The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2018)
David Robinson and Logan Koepke: Stuck in a Pattern: Early evidence on “predictive policing” and civil rights, Upturn (2016)
Delbert S. Elliot: Lies, Damn Lies and Arrest Statistics, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (1995)
Emily Leslie and Nolan G. Pope: The Unintended Impact of Pretrial Detention on Case Outcomes: Evidence from New York City Arraignments, Journal of Law and Economics (2017)
Emily Yoffe: Innocence is Irrelevant: This is the age of the plea bargain—and millions of Americans are suffering the consequences, The Atlantic (2017)
Emmeline Clien: Here’s how to help end cash bail, The Nation (2018)
Ethan Corey and Puck Lo: The ‘Failure to Appear’ Fallacy, The Appeal (2019)
Human Impact Partners: Liberating Our Health: Ending the Harms of Pretrial Incarceration and Money Bail (2020)
James Kilgore, Emmett Sanders, and Myaisha Hayes: No More Shackles: Why We Must End the Use of Electronic Monitors for People on Parole, MediaJustice (2018)
James Kilgore: What is E-Carceration?, Challenging E-Carceration (2017)
Jan Chaiken, Marcia Chaiken, and William Rhodes: Predicting Violent Behavior and Classifying Violent Offenders, Understanding and Preventing Violence, Volume 4: Consequences and Control (1994)
Jazmine Ulloa California’s Historic Overhaul of Cash Bail is Now on Hold, Pending a 2020 Referendum, Los Angeles Times (2019)
Jeffrey A. Butts and Vincent Schiraldi: Recidivism Reconsidered: Preserving the Community Justice Mission of Community Corrections, Havard Kennedy School (2018)
Jeffrey J. Rachlinksi, Sheri Lynn Johnson, Andrew J. Wistrich, and Chris Guthrie: Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges? Notre Dame Law Review (2009)
John MacDonald and Steven Raphael: An Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Case Dispositions and Sentencing Outcomes for Criminal Cases Presented to and Processed by the Office of the San Francisco District Attorney, University of Pennsylvania Department of Criminology and University of California, Berkeley Goldman School of Public Policy (2017)
Joshua A. Haby and Eve M. Brank: The role of anchoring in plea bargains, Judicial Notebook (2013)
Juleyka Lantigua-Williams: Why poor, low-level offenders often plead to worse crimes, The Atlantic (2016)
Kristian Lum, Chesa Boudin, and Megan Price: The impact of overbooking on a pre-trial risk assessment tool, (2020)
Lauryn P. Gouldin: Defining Flight Risk, The University of Chicago Law Review (2017)
Marc Mauer: Addressing Racial Disparities in Incarceration, The Sentencing Project (2011)
Mary Roper and Nyssa Taylor: Request for Meeting to Discuss Reform of First Judicial District Bail Practices, ACLU PA (2018)
Matt Black and Russell Smith: Electronic monitoring in the criminal justice system, Australian Institute of Criminology (2003)
Megan C Kurlycheck, Robert Brame, and Shawn D. Bushway: Scarlet Letters and Recidivism: Does an Old Criminal Record Predict Future Offending? Criminology and Public Policy (2006)
Megan Stevenson: Distortion of Justice: How the Inability to Pay Bail Affects Case Outcomes, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization (2018)
Megan Stevenson and Sandra Mayson: Contributions: The Scale of Misdemeanor Justice, Boston University Law Review (2018)
Michelle Alexander: The Newest Jim Crowe, The New York Times (2018)
Nathan James: Risk and Needs Assessment in the Federal Prison System, Congressional Research Service (2018)
Nicole Flatow: At least 3/4 of Newark Pedestrian Police Stops had No Constitutional Basis, Justice Department Finds, Think Progress (2014)
Paul Heaton, Sandra Mayson, and Megan Stevenson: The Downstream Consequences of Misdemeanor Pretrial Detention, University of Pennsylvania Law School (2016)
Pretrial Justice Institute: Scan of Pretrial Practices (2019)
Rashida Richardson, Jason Schultz, and Kate Crawford: Dirty Data, Bad Predictions: How Civil Rights Violations Impact Police Data, Predictive Policing Systems, and Justice, NYU Law Review (2019)
The Sentencing Project: Report of The Sentencing Project to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance: Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System (2018)
Shima Baradaran and Frank McIntyre: Predicting Violence, Texas Law Review (2011)
Sonja B. Starr and M. Marit Rehavi: Racial Disparities in Federal Criminal Sentences, University of Michigan Law School (2014)
Stef W. Kight: Ending Cash Bail, Axios (2019)
Stephanie Wykstra: Bail reform, which could save millions of unconvicted people from jail, explained, Vox (2018)
Sunita Sah, Christopher T. Robertson, and Shima B. Baughman: Blinding prosecutors to defendants’ race: A policy proposal to reduce unconscious bias in the criminal justice system, Behavioral Science & Policy (2015)
Tanzina Vega: Study: Black people more likely to be wrongfully convicted, CNN (2017)
Vera Institute of Justice: Incarceration Rates, (2015)
Wendy Sawyer and Peter Wagner: Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019, Prison Policy Initiative (2019)
William Bales, David Scheppegrell, Matthew DeMichele, Carl Wicklund, and Joe Russo: Examining Electronic Monitoring Technologies, PEW Charitable Trusts (2015)
Will Dobbie, Jacob Goldin, and Crystal Yang: The Effects of Pretrial Detention on Conviction, Future Crime, and Employment: Evidence from Randomly Assigned Judges, American Economic Association (2018)
WKBW Staff: On January 1, cash bail will be eliminated in New York state, KXLH (2019)
Woosong Reagan JR: The impact of electronic monitoring and disruptive innovation on recidivism rates in federal prisons: a secondary data analysis, Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal (2017)

Statistics and Validation of Tools

Cynthia A. Mamalian: State of the Science of Pretrial Risk Assessment, Pretrial Justice Institute (2011)
Diana Mindrila and Phoebe Balentyne: Scatterplots and Correlation, The Basic Practice of Statistics (6th ed.)
Dr. Jacqueline van Wormer: Whatcom County Pretrial Development Project
Kelly D Johnson and Patricia L Hardyman: How do you know if the risk assessment instrument works? Topics in Community Corrections (2004)
Kristin Bechtel, Christopher Lowenkamp, and Alex Holsinger: Identifying the Predictors of Pretrial Failure: A Meta-Analysis, (2011)
Laurel Eckhouse, Kristian Lum, Cynthia Conti-Cook, and Julie Ciccolini: Layers of Bias: A Unified Approach for Understanding Problems With Risk Assessment, Criminal Justice and Behavior (2018)
Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo, Mohamed Elfil, and Ahmed Negida: Evidence Based Emergency Medicine; Part 5 Receiver Operating Curve and Area under the Curve, Emergency (2016)

Demographic Variables in RATs

Demographic variables common in pretrial RATs include:


Advancement Project, Education Law Center, FairTest, The Forum for Education and Democracy, Juvenile Law Center, & NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc: Federal Policy, ESEA Reauthorization, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
Barbara Robles-Ramamurthy and Clarence Watson: Examining Racial Disparities in Juvenile Justice, The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (2019)
Barry C. Feld: Punishing Kids in Juvenile and Criminal Courts, University of Chicago Press Journals (2018)
Campaign for Youth Justice: Key Facts: Youth in the Justice System (2016)
Christopher Hartney and Fabiana Silva: And Justice for Some: Differential Treatment of Youth of Color in the Justice System, National Council on Crime and Delinquency (2007)
Elizabeth S. Scott and Laurence. D. Steinberg: Rethinking Juvenile Justice, Harvard University Press (2008)
Kristin Henning: Criminalizing Normal Adolescent Behavior in
Communities of Color: The Role of Prosecutors in
Juvenile Justice Reform
, Cornell Law Review (2013)
LAPD: How Gangs are Identified
Lincoln Anthony Blades: The Criminal Justice System Discriminates Against Children of Color, Teen Vogue (2018)
Malcolm C. Young and Jenni Gainsborough: Prosecuting Juveniles in Adult Court: An Assessment of Trends and Consequences, The Sentencing Project (2000)
Megan T. Stevenson and Christopher Slobogin: Algorithmic Risk Assessments and the Double-Edged Sword of Youth, Washington University Law Review and Vanderbilt Law (2018) 
Nancy A. Heitzeg: Education or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline, Forum on Public Policy (2009)
Susan Young, Ben Greer, and Richard Church: Juvenile delinquency, welfare, justice and therapeutic interventions: a global perspective, BJPsych Bulletin (2017)
The W. Haywood Burns Institute for Justice Fairness & Equity: Unbalanced Youth Justice: Disparity Gap Incarceration Rate & About


Amanda Aykanian and Wonhyung Lee: Social Work’s Role in Ending the Criminalization of Homelessness: Opportunities for Action, Social Work Advance Access (2016)
Danyelle Solomon, Connor Maxwell, and Abril Castro: Systemic Inequality: Displacement, Exclusion, and Segregation, Center for American Progress (2019)
Deena Greenberg, Carl Gershenson, and Matthew Desmond: Discrimination in Evictions: Empirical Evidence and Legal Challenges, Harvard University (2015)
Emily Badger and Quoctrung Bui: In 83 Million Eviction Records, a Sweeping and Intimate New Look at Housing in America, The New York Times (2018)
Eviction Lab, Princeton University
Julian Somers, Stephanie N. Rezansoff, Akm Moniruzzaman, Anita Palepu, Michelle Patterson: Housing First Reduces Re-Offending among Formerly Homeless Adults with Mental Disorders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial, PLoS ONE (2013)
Kaaryn Gustafson: The Criminalization of Poverty, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (2009)
Lindsey L. Upton: Care, Control, or Criminalization? Discourses on Homelessness and Social Responses, (2016)
Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority: Report and Recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee on Black People Experiencing Homelessness (2018)
Maria Hanratty: Impacts of Heading Home Hennepin’s Housing First Programs for Long-Term Homeless Adults, Housing Policy Debate (2011)
Matthew Desmond: Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City, Penguin Random House (2016)
Max Blau: Black Southerners are Bearing the Brunt of America’s Eviction Epidemic, Pew Charitable Trusts, Stateline Article (2019)
Reveal from The Center for Investigative Reporting: The red line: Racial disparities in lending, Reveal (2018)
Runa Rajagopal: Building Justice: How Segregation Enables Over-Policing of Communities of Color, City Limits (2016)
Seema L. Clifasefi, Daniel K. Malone, and Susan E. Collins: Exposure to Project-based Housing First is Associated with Reduced Jail Time and Bookings, International Journal of Drug Policy (2013)
Tami Iwamoto: Adding Insult to Injury: Criminalization of Homelessness in Los Angeles, Whittier L. Review (2008)

Substance Use

ACLU: Marijuana Arrests by the Numbers
Alyssa C. Mooney, Eric Giannella, M. Maria Glymour, Torsten B. Neilands, Meghan D. Morris, Jacqueline Tulsky, and May Sudhinaraset: Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Arrests for Drug
Possession After California Proposition 47, 2011–2016
, American Journal of Public Health, Criminal Justice (2018)
Drug Policy Alliance: Race and the Drug War
Emily Feinstein, Linda Richter and Susan E Foster: Addressing the Critical Health Problem of Adolescent Substance Use Through Health Care, Research, and Public Policy, Journal of Adolescent Health (2012) 
Innocence Staff: Racial Disparities Evident in New York City Arrest Data for Marijuana Possession, Innocence Project (2018)
Lisa D. Moore and Amy Elkavich: Who’s Using and Who’s Doing Time: Incarceration, the War on Drugs, and Public Health, American Journal of Public Health (2011)
National Institutes of Health: Addiction and Criminal Justice
Samantha Melamed: Philadelphia police are searching more cars for marijuana — but finding less of it, critics say, The Philadelphia Inquirer (2019)
Sarra L. Hedden, Joel Kennet, Rachel Lipari, Grace Medley, Peter Tice, Elizabeth A. P. Copello, and Larry A. Kroutil: Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014)
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population, (2010)
Treatment Advocacy Center: Victimization and Serious Mental Illness (2016)

Mental Health

Alina Perez, Steven Leifman, and Ana Estrada: Reversing the Criminalization of Mental Illness, Sage Journals (2003)
Jennifer Bronson and Marcus Berzofsky: Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates, Bureau of Justice Statistics (2017)
John Junginger, Keith Claypoole, Ranilo Laygo, and Annette Crisanti: Effects of Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse on Criminal Offenses, Psychiatric Services (2006)
Lena Wen and Joshua M. Sharfstein: Unrest in Baltimore: the role of public health, JAMA Network (2015)


Richard Rothstein: From Ferguson to Baltimore: The Fruits of Government-Sponsored Segregation, Economic Policy Institute (2015)
State of Black America: Locked Out: Education, Jobs & Justice, National Urban League (2016)
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, BLS Reports (2017)
Valerie Wilson: Black unemployment is at least twice as high as white unemployment at the national level and in 14 states and the District of Columbia, Economic Policy Institute (2019)

Pretrial Tools

Alaska Scale (AK 2-Scale) Alaska Department of Corrections
Alaska Scale: Pamela Cravez: Pretrial Risk Assessment Tool developed for Alaska, Alaska Justice Forum (2018)
Alaska: Laws of Alaska, 2019, CCS HB 49
Allegheny Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument Profile FTA Scale and Re-Arrest Scale
Allegheny tool: Pretrial Justice Institute: The Transformation of Pretrial Services in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania: Development of Best Practices and Validation of Risk Assessment (2007)
COMPAS: Northpointe: Practitioners Guide to COMPAS (2012)
COMPAS: Equivant, Northpointe, Inc: Practitioners Guide to COMPAS Core (2019)
COMPAS: Standford Law School Policy Lab: Risk Assessment Factsheet: Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) Pretrial Release Risk Scale – II (PRRS-II) (2019)
COMPAS: Sharon Lansing New York State COMPAS-Probation Risk and Need Assessment Study: Examining the Recidivism Scale’s Effectiveness and Predictive Accuracy, Division of Criminal Justice Services, Office of Justice Research and Performance Criminal Justice Research Report
COMPAS: Sample COMPAS Risk Assessment COMPAS “CORE”
Connecticut tool: Alex Tsarkov Report to the Governor and the General Assembly on Pretrial Release and Detention in Connecticut, Connecticut Sentencing Commission (2017)
CPAT: Victoria A. Terranova and Kyle C. Ward Colorado Pretrial Assessment Tool Validation Phase One Executive Summary, Pretrial Justice Institute and JFA Institute (2012)
CPAT: CPAT Administration, Scoring, and Reporting Manual, Version 1, The Pretrial Justice Institute (2013)
CPAT: The Colorado Pretrial Assessment Tool (CPAT): Administration, Scoring, and Reporting Manual, Version 2, Colorado Association of Pretrial Services (2015)
Correctional Assessment and Intervention System (CAIS): Megan E. Collins, Emily M. Glazener, Christina D. Stewart, and Dr. James P. Lynch, Follow-Up Report to the MSCCSP: Using Assessment Instruments During Criminal Sentencing, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Maryland (2015)
Dallas County, TX: John Creuzot, Criminal District Attorney, Dallas County Texas, 2019
DELPAT: Alan Davis: Delaware Pretrial Assessment Tool, Chief Magistrate (2018)
DELPAT: House Bill 204, 149th General Assembly (2017-2018)
DC Pretrial Risk Assessment: Spurgeon Kennedy, Laura House, Michael Williams, Using Research to Improve Pretrial Justice and Public Safety: Results from PSA’s Risk Assessment Validation Project, Pretrial Services Agency for the District of Columbia (2013)
FPRAI: James Austin, Avi Bhati, Michael Jones, and Roger Ocker Florida Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument, The JFA Institute (2010)
Iowa tool: Lettie Prell Validation of the 5th Judicial District Pretrial Release Point Schedule on Polk County Defendants, Iowa Department of Corrections (2008)
IRAS-PAT: Eric Grommon, Brad Ray, Dona Sapp, and Rachel Thelin: Process Evaluation of the IRAS-PAT Pilot Program Implementation: Report to the Indiana Office of Court Services, Center for Criminal Justice Research, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, and Indiana University Public Policy Institute (2017)
IRAS-PAT: Indiana Office of Court Services: Pretrial Release: An Indiana Supreme Court Pilot Project (2019)
Kansas: 2018 Statute: Article 28 – Conditions of Release
LSI-R: D.A. Andrews, James Bonta, Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) MHS Assessments
Maryland tools: Open Society Foundations: Steps in the Right Direction: Maryland Counties Leading the Way in Pretrial Services, Criminal and Juvenile Justice Program, Open Society Institute-Baltimore (2018)
Maryland tools: Angela Roberts and Nora Eckert: As Maryland courts meld artificial intelligence into bail decisions, concerns follow, Capital News Service (2018)
Michigan Joint Task Force on Jail and Pretrial Incarceration: Report and Recommendations (2020)
MNPAT: Marcy R. Podkopacz and Tracy Loynachan: Hennepin County 2015 Adult Pretrial Scale Validation Minnesota Judicial Branch (2015)
Minnesota Judicial Branch: Completing the Pretrial Release Evaluation Form and Assessment Tool, Minnesota State Court Administrator’s Office (2019)
Nevada Pretrial Risk Assessment Administrative Office of the Courts
New Mexico: Statute 5-401. Pretrial Release
New Jersey: Chloe Anderson, Cindy Redcross, Erin Valentine, and Luke Miratrix: Evaluation of Pretrial Justice System Reforms That Use the Public Safety Assessment Effects of New Jersey’s Criminal Justice Reform, Pretrial Justice Reform Study, MDRC Center for Criminal Justice Research (2019)
New Jersey Courts Criminal Justice Reform Information Center (2018)
New York City Criminal Justice Agency Release Assessment CJA Annual Report (2017)
NYC: New York City Criminal Justice Agency: Guide to Pretrial Release Assessment (2019) and Release Assessment
ORAS-PAT: Edward Latessa, Paula Smith, Richard Lemke, Matthew Makarios, and Christopher Lowenkamp, The Creation and Validation of the Ohio Risk Assessment System (ORAS), University of Cincinnati (2009)
ORAS-PAT: Ohio Risk Assessment System, Department of Rehabilitation and Correction
Oregon: The Public Safety Checklist for Oregon Criminal Justice Commission
Proxy tool: Brad Bogue, William Woodward, and Lore Joplin: Using a Proxy Score to Pre-Screen Offenders for Risk to Reoffend (2006)
Public Safety Assessment (PSA), Laura and John Arnold Foundation
Public Safety Assessment: Developing a National Model for Pretrial Risk Assessment Laura and John Arnold Foundation (2013)
Public Safety Assessment: Matthew DeMichele, Peter Baumgartner, Michael Wenger, Kelle Barrick, Megan Comfort, and Shilpi Misra: The Public Safety Assessment: A Re-Validation and Assessment of Predictive Utility and Differential Prediction by Race and Gender in Kentucky
Public Safety Assessment (New Jersey): Glenn A. Grant: Jan 1-Dec 31 2018 Report to the Governor and the Legislature, New Jersey Courts, Criminal Justice Reform (2018)
Riverside Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument: Brian Lovins and Lori Lovins: Riverside Pretrial Assistance to California Counties (PACC) Project: Validation of a Risk Assessment Tool, Correctional Consultants Inc. (2016)
Santa Clara Risk Assessment Instrument: David J. Levin Santa Clara County, California Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument Pretrial Justice Institute (2012)
Sonoma Pretrial Assessment Tool (2015)
Strafford County, New Hampshire: Pretrial Programming, Community Corrections (2020)
VPRAI: Marie VanNostrand: Assessing Risk Among Pretrial Defendants in Virginia: The Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument, Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services (2003)
VPRAI: Kenneth Rose: A “New Norm” For Pretrial Justice in the Commonwealth of Virginia Pretrial Risk-based Decision Making Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services (2013)
VPRAI: VA Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument Training and Instruction Manual
VPRAI: Marie VanNostrand and Kenneth J. Rose Pretrial Risk Assessment in Virginia, Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services and Virginia Community Criminal Justice Association. Research by Luminosity, Inc. (2009)
VPRAI: Mona J.E. Danner, Marie VanNostrand, and Lisa M. Spruance: Risk-Based Pretrial Release Recommendation and Supervision Guidelines, Luminosity, Inc (2015)
VPRAI-R: Mona J.E. Danner, Marie VanNostrand, and Lisa M. Spruance Race and Gender Neutral Pretrial Risk Assessment Release Recommendations, and Supervision: VPRAI and Praxis Revised, Luminosity, Inc (2016)
VPRAI-R: Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument Instruction Manual – Version 4.3, Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services (2018)
VPRAI-R: Kenneth Rose: Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument (VPRAI) and Praxis Overview, Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services (2018)
Washington State Adult Static Risk Assessment Washington Courts (2012)
Washington ASRA: Carl McCurley: Development, Testing, and Use of…The Adult Static Risk Assessment, Washington State Center for Court Research (2015)